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Young Voice英语广播:2021(11)奥马尔·瓦索访谈

通讯员:郭思齐    编辑者:陈三    发布时间:2021年05月28日    阅读:    

大家好,这里是湖北理工学院外国语学院英语调频广播台,我是主播郭思齐。历史告诉我们,无论是和平示威还是暴力示威都会改变政治格局。奥马尔·瓦索是美国普林斯顿大学的政治系的助理教授,他研究的方向是抗议的历史影响和政治影响,让我们来走进这段关于他的访谈吧。

首先让我们先来了解一下这篇文章里出现的重点词汇。

rhetoric [ˈretərɪk]n.修辞,辞藻

liberalize [ˈlɪbrəlaɪz]v.使自由化

imagery[ˈɪmɪdʒəri]n.意象,比喻

mobilize[ˈmoʊbəlaɪz] v.动员,调动

enrage[ɪnˈreɪdʒ] v.使激怒

conservatively[kənˈsəvətɪvlɪ]adv.谨慎地,适当地


The socialriotsof the 1960s

60年代的社会骚乱

Omar, you've been looking at the 60s as a period of social unrest, but also how that influenced opinion and you just recently published some ofthis.What have you learned?

奥马尔,你有关注过60年代的社会骚乱,以及社会骚乱对民意的影响,你最近还发布了与此有关的内容。你了解到的情况是怎样的呢?


I looked at both nonviolent and violent protests in the 1960s.And to be clear, this is looking at thousands of protests over about a dozen years.And what I found was that protests are enormously powerful at generating press.And in addition, what the news covers predicts what changes in public opinion.In a later period in the 1960s, as we start to see more violent protest, we see more coverage of riots and public opinion shifts.And the most important problem, people say, is issues of crime and riots.

我回望了上世纪60年代的暴力抗议和非暴力抗议。在那些年里,有数千次抗议事件。我发现的是抗议非常有助于产生压力。此外,新闻报道预测的民意变化是怎样的呢?上世纪60年代末期开始出现更多的暴犯罪问题和暴动问题。力抗议,我们看到了更多与暴动和民意变动有关的报道。人们认为,最重要的问题是犯罪问题和暴动问题。


So is it about the framing or is it about the actual actions?Meaning if it's nonviolent protest that influence opinion in one direction do violent protests have opposite,maybe

the opposite effect?

是与表达有关,还是与实际行动有关呢?意思是不是:如果非暴力抗议朝某个方向带动民意,那么暴力抗议是否有反向效果呢?


So framing matters enormously here.And I think both protest tactics and media coverage matter a lot. So they're both important actors.And protesters obviously have the ability to make choices about what kinds of tactics they employ,what kinds of strategies in terms of rhetoric, what kinds of things are done.

在这个问题上,表达就起到了很大的作用。我想抗议的策略和媒体的报道很重要,两者都是很重要的因素。抗议者当然有能力就自己要采取何种策略做出选择,也可以选择辞藻上用什么策略以及要做哪种事情。


For example, in the 1960s, we see really remarkable intention to create very dramatic images that would help to,in the language of the 1960s shock the conscience of the nation.The framing that the media does is really central here.So whether we're sort of looking through the eyes of the protesters or really through the eyes of the police matters a lot.

比如世纪60年代,我们看到抗议者有很强烈的意愿想要制造出惊心动魄的图片,为自己造势。用上世纪60年代的话来说就是震惊全国的良知。媒体的用词方式在这里有主要作用。所以,我们是否能透过抗议者的双眼和警察的双眼来看透他们的所想是非常重要。


One of the questions that people have is, how will this play a role in November's election?

人们有一个问题是--这会对11月的总统选举有何影响?


In 1964,the Civil Rights Act passes.The Democratic Party becomes the party of black interests.And we see a shift where people are near nonviolent protests that are kind of liberalizing effect of nonviolent protests.At the same time,what I also see is the counties that are close to violent protest vote more conservatively.

1964年,《民权法案》通过。民主党成为代表黑人利益的党派。我们注意到接近于非暴力抗议的人群有某种自由化的效果。与此同时,我也注意到接近于暴力抗议的一些国家投票会更谨慎一些。


So when we see peaceful protests,we respond in a way that thinks about human rights and civil rights.But when we see violent protests or riots, we respond in a way that wants more law and order, is that roughly, am l summarizing it correctly?

所以,每当我们看到和平抗议的时候,我们的反应都是与人权和民权有关的内容。但当我们看到暴力抗议或者暴动的时候,我们的反应都是希望有更多的法律和秩序,我的总结您觉得正确吗?


Yeah, I think that's a very good summary, and I think it's also really important to begin with the sort of people's sense of rage and grief and horror at what they saw in this imagery, in this footage of George Floyd's death. That seeing a member of the state engage in violence against an unarmed citizenis enraging for a lot of people.And when our attention focuses on that act of state violence,it moves that,you know,there's a persuadable chunk of voters who sort of say, oh, I care about that issue.That's something that's going to, you know,mobilize me.

正确,我觉得这个总结很精当。而且我觉得很重要的是一开始就要有通过弗洛伊德死前录像中看到的愤怒感和悲伤以及震惊。看到一名警察对一名手无缚鸡之力的市民做出这样的举动,会让民众觉得很愤怒。而当我们的注意力聚焦在暴力事件上时,有一群摇摆不定的选民会表示说自己挺关心这个问题。还说这种事情会动员自己。


But as the conversation shifts to acts of protester initiated violence,you know,for those persuadable voters,the story becomes more complicated.And protesters can move those this is what I see in the 1960s.And it's also the kind of tactics protesters employ are a kind of rhetoric. that is persuading voters who may be sympathetic both to George Floyd and potentially to concerns about disorder.

但当对话演变为抗议者发起的暴力事件时,对这些摇摆不定的选民来说,情况就变得更为复杂了。抗议会让这些选民动摇,这是我从60年代的历史中观察到的现象。所以抗议者会用的一种言语上的策略是劝说对弗洛伊德有同情心的选民以及忧虑社会秩序的选民。


Omar Wasow, assistant professor at Princeton University. Thanks so much for joining us. Thank you so much,Hari.

感谢普林斯顿大学奥马尔教授的分享,谢谢你,哈里。


文章来源:可可英语


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